From Physlab.lums.edu.pk

Instructor: Dr. [Sabieh Anwar] *Office hours:* Monday, 2-6 pm

Teaching Fellow: [Kaneez Amna] *Office hours:* Tuesday and Thursday, 10 am - 2 pm

**Lecture 1** (26 August 2009)

- Three dimensional wave equation
- Harmonic waves: plane and spherical
- Deriving the wave equation for the electric field from Maxwell's Equations
- Electric and and magnetic fields at the interface of two materials (applying boundary conditions to Maxwell's Equations)
- Deriving laws of reflection and refraction using Maxwell's Equations
- S and P- polarizations
- Introduction to Fresnel coefficients for reflection and transmission

**Lecture 2** (2 September 2009)

- Interpretations of the Fresnel Equations
- Brewster angle
- Total internal reflection
- Plotting of Fresnel coefficients with respect to incidence angle
- Phase change upon reflection and transmission
- reflectivity and Transmissivity

**Homework No. 1** Fresnel's Equations; Reflection and Refraction The HW is due 14 September, 2 pm.
**Homework No. 1** Solution.
**Lecture 3** (9 September 2009)

- Evanescent wave
- Polarization of a dielectric sphere
- Polarizability of an atom
- Clausius-Mossotti Equation

**Lecture 4** (16 September 2009)

- Lorentz's oscillator model
- Refractive index can be complex
- Extinction coefficient, resonant and non-resonant absorption
- refractive index of non-absorbing gases
- Dispersion

**Lecture 5** (30 September 2009)

- Drude's model of conductivity
- Dispersion relationships for free charge carriers
- Reflectivity of perfect conductors
- Plasma frequency and introduction to plasma oscillations

**Homework No. 2** Absorption, Refractive index and Dispersion The HW is due 20 October, 2 pm.
**Homework No. 2** Solution.
**Midterm Examination** Question paper.
**Midterm Examination** Solution.
**Homework No. 3** Interference, Fourier Theory and Propagation of Light The HW is due 4 December, 2pm.
**Homework No. 3** Solution.
**Final Examination** Question paper.
**Final Examination** Solution.

**Post-mid-term contents**

- Interference basics, path difference, optical path difference, phase difference
- Fourier transformation and basic ideas of convolution, relationship between time and frequency, space and k-space domains
- group and phase velocity, derivation of relationships between phase and group velocities, impossibility of superluminal communication, significance of group velocity
- multiple beam interference as an example of interference by amplitude splitting, fringes produced by multiple reflections from thin films
- Fabry-Perot interferometry: Airy's function, coefficient of finesse, orders, finesse, free spectral range, resolution and resolving power, modes of operation (especially scanning distance)
- Michelson interferometry: mechanism of producing circular fringes, equivalent optical diagram, finding the refractive index of gases
- Temporal interference: coherence time, coherence length, linewidth, correlation function, autocorrelation, visibility of fringes