Previous Research

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Contents

Establishment of Quantum Optics Laboratory

Researchers: Umer Hassan, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Jawed Anwar, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad
Photons for Undergraduates
Electromagnetically induced transparency: a theoretical overview
Experimental proposal for electromagnetically-induced transparency
The immediate goal of this project is the establishment of an optics laboratory that can become a test bed for quantum effects such as single photon and multiple photon interference, photon antibunching, quantum teleportation and quantum key distribution, optical computing and quantum information processing. This will be a seed grant that will enable me to explore research directions in this area but in the near future, the lab will serve as a quantum mechanics laboratory for our undergraduate students.

Development of Thermoelectric oxides for renewable energy conversion technologies

Researchers: Dr. Shahid Ramay, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Project Principal Investigator: Dr. Falak Sher, SSE Chemistry; Collaborator: Dr. Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Punjab University
This research project aims at developing perovskite based oxide materials that are stable and thermoelectrically efficient at the high temperatures common in Pakistan. I am developing analytical techniques for characterizing the properties of these materials, notably thermoelectric coefficient, thermal and electronic conductivities.

Concomitant gradients in low field magnetic resonance imaging

Project is complete.
Researchers: Rafiullah, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Undesired gradients in low field magnetic resonance imaging
This research thesis discussed the issue of concomitant gradients that appear while doing MRI at low or zero fields. The origin of these gradients lies in the applicability of Maxwell’s equations and leads to distortions in acquired images. These distortions were quantitatively investigated.

Optimization of NMR pulse sequences for quantum information processing

Project is complete.
Researchers: Saman Naseer, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Usman Qazi, Biology, SSE
The research work involved the development of the gradient ascent algorithm for finding optimal pulse sequences. The goal was to construct high fidelity, short in duration and low power sequences, keeping in mind the robust operations required for quantum computing.

Supercapacitors

Researchers: Afaq Piracha, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; In collaboration with: Dr. Irshad Hussain, SSE Chemistry
We are working on a project that investigates high-k dielectric materials for supercapacitor applications. These materials are in fact nanoparticles grown in-situ on fibrous structures such as paper or cellulose. We are devising not only the complete theory and modeling of the interfacial polarization effects that cause the enhanced dielectric strengths, but have also developed a complete dielectric measurement system for this purpose.

Entanglement in Macroscopic Magnetic Systems

Researchers: Amrozia Shaheen, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Ayesha Khalique, NUST, Islamabad
This is a theoretical project that also involves simulation and modeling. With the rapid progress in magnetic materials, comes the urge to explore magnetic spin systems that exhibit stronger-than-classical-correlations. There is considerable interest in looking for hotter and larger systems exhibiting entanglement. With this in mind, we are investigating spin coupling topologies, strengths of applied magnetic fields, asymmetries in applied fields, magnitudes and signs of coupling constants to look for regimes where one can hope to find entanglement at room temperature. This work ties in with the appropriate quantification measures for entanglement in multi-spin systems.

Synthesis of patterned magnetic films by electrodeposition

Researchers: Aysha Aftab, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Dr. Shahid Atiq Punjab University
Electrodeposited metallic thin films
Electrodeposition is the application of a metal coating to metallic or other conducting surface by an electrochemical process. It is well established technique for atomic layer growth of magnetic films. We are developing an electrochemical cell for patterned nano-magnetic film synthesis for use in our magneto-optical and spin calitronic applications.

Audiometric Measurements

Researchers: Umer Hassan, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Pure tone audiometry is one of the most widely employed technique to measure the degree of hearing loss. In this method, the subject is provided with the pure tones of different frequencies and the audiometer measures the hearing level threshold at the specified frequencies. The difference from the standard threshold determines the level of hearing loss in humans. We are using a signal generator and headphones for pure tone audiometry. The experimenter changes the frequencies and the intensities using the signal generator and the measured voltage threshold values are converted into SPL. The test is performed for both left and right ear individually. The other part of the test involves masking one ear while testing the other ear. We are using bandlimited white gaussian noise as a making signal. We are currently performing the air conduction test, which in turn is used for the diagnosis of outer and middle air diseases.

Physiological Measurements Kits for Technologists

Researchers: Umer Hassan, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Monitoring ECG and Pulse Oximetry
Physiological Measurements
The SSE Physlab is developing a low-cost unit that will teach students the technology behind the scenes in physiological measurements. Pulse oximetry and ECG units have already been demonstrated and new experiments are being added to the reportoire.


Investigating circular modes in a vibrating string

Researchers: Umer Hassan, Zubair Usman, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
When a simple stretched string is driven sinusoidally using a mechanical vibrator in a plane and made to resonate, non linearities are observed. In this case, the transverse vibrations are not polarized in one plane; and the motion of the string becomes elliptic as the amplitude of the vibration increases. This is called the circular mode of vibration. The approximate solution of the equations of motion shows that the trajectory is an ellipse. The experiment is the continuation of the quest to model this motion efficiently and to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior of the circular modes. A stretched string, fixed at one end to a rigid support and attached to a hanging weight at other end, is made to resonate. A camera, which has been calibrated to measure the width of an object at a fixed distance in front of it, is used to capture the images of the two perpendicular polarizations of the string. The images are processed to calculate the maximum displacement of the string in both of the planes. We use the elliptical path modelling to represent the circular modes.

High Temperature Precision Dielectric Cell

Project is complete.
Researchers: Afaq Piracha, Shahid Ramay, Wasif Zia, Abdul Mannan, Haroon Ahmad, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Punjab University

Steps to operate Dielectric Measurement System
Operator Manual
Designing a dielectric cell
Precise High Temperature Dielectric Measurement System
Dielectric Measurements are a basic means of evaluating electronic components and materials. Every material has a unique set of electrical characteristics that are dependent on its dielectric or insulation properties. Accurate measurements of these properties can provide valuable information to ensure an intended application. The dielectric cell is successfully designed and constructed for measuring frequency and temperature dependant dielectric properties of rigid flat materials such as Ceramics, Polymers and composites at elevated temperatures. The cell is classified in vertical and horizantal assembly that can be used up to 300 Degrees C and up to 800 Degrees C respectively. The cell is made up of two electrodes. One electrode is fixed and the other is movable with a guard ring via a micrometer. The micrometer allows precise measurement of electrode spacing. The guard ring reduces fringe effects to improve measurements. The cell can be connected to LCR meter through probes and is interfaced with computer through software wizard that will allow to control the LCR via DB-9 cable and perform linear or log sweeps over a frequency range 20Hz to 1MHz as well as save the measurement results to an Excel-compatible log file.

Measurement of energy band gap in semiconductors

Project is complete.
Researchers: Amrozia Shaheen, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Band gap determination and electrical conductivity of semiconductors
We are designing an experiment for the fast and reliable measurements of the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity in semiconductor and metallic samples. The energy band gap can be calculated from the data taken in the intrinsic region, and the temperature dependence of the majority carrier mobility can be deduced from measurements taken in extrinsic region. Important parameters are, temperature controlling which is being done by using ‘Multi-Zone Controller’ and resistance measurement using ‘Four Probe Method’.

Low Temperature Heat Capacities and Phase Transitions

Project is complete.
Researchers: Waqas Mahmood, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen and specific heats of metals
This is a very interesting and simple experiment to determine the low temperature heat capacities using a homemade demonstration of the technique of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The latent heat of vaporization can then be used to experimentally determine the specific heats of various metals at low temperatures. Spin re-ordering temperature such as the famous Verwey transition in ferrites can also be explored.

Heaters and Refractory Materials

Project is complete.
Researchers: Wasif Zia, Abdul Mannan, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Composition of ceramic mixtures used in electric heaters by Mohammad Ali Raahim and Muhammad Ahmed Riaz.
Also visit our Workshop page.
We have developed disk, cartridge and ring heaters of variable dimensions to fit our requirements in the lab. We make our own thermal cement and raisin. We can also make ceramic sheets (perforated) with different raisins for making shelves and walls of our lab furnaces and micro-ovens.

Currently we can make cartridge heaters ranging from 4 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length to 20 mm in diameter and 300 mm in length. All heaters are made on demand and we also make these for other departments. With additional equipment we can introduce temperature control also. We are also developing `temperature stable' cavities as small as 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length for temperatures ranges of -196 Deg C to 500 Deg C.


Video tracking of Brownian motion

Project is complete.
Researchers: Asma Khalid, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Tracking Brownian motion through video microscopy.
We used suspension of uniform Polystyrene Microspheres and with the help of microscope objective, CCD camera and computer software we developed image processing programmes to locate the position of microspheres. By incorporating the mean square displacement of suspended particles in the Einstein’s formula we will calculate the Avogadro’s number and the Boltzmann constant. This formula was derived by applying the van’t Hoff law to suspensions, assuming Stoke’s law and describing the Brownian motion as a diffusion process.

Thermal studies on resistively heated wires

Project is complete.
Researchers: Wasif Zia, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Curie point, susceptibility and temperature measurements of rapidly heated ferromagnetic wires”, M.S. Anwar, W. Zia, Review of Scientific Instruments, 81, 124904 (2010).
Our [freshman experiment on the measurement of the Curie temperatures] was very popular. Later, we added susceptibility measurements to the experiment, enabling us to look at the temperature dependent susceptibility. Furthermore, we improved and generalized the technique to determine the analytical temperature of any rapidly resistively heated wire, based on geoemetrical and thermophysical data. We developing a dynamical model for the thermocouple's thermal inertia applicable in such rapid heating conditions.

Thermo-elastic tracking of phase transitions

Researchers: Muhammad Wasif, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
Studying phase transitions with a strain gauge.
Many physical substances undergo phase transition when subjected to heat. Chromium also follows that behavior which is associated with the change in its magnetic order. In this experiment we study the phase transition of Chromium by directly measuring the volume change at Neel temperature. Temperature control is achieved thermoelectrically. Several useful thermodynamical quantities associated with the phase transition can be determined, such as the latent heat and entropy change.

X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Researchers: Asma Khalid, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
X-ray fluorescence
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an elemental analysis technique which provides highly accurate determinations for major elements and a broad elemental survey of the sample composition. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials. When high energy photons (x-rays) fall on the target, they displace inner shell electrons from it. Outer shell electrons then fall into the vacancy left by the displaced electron. In doing so, they normally emit light (fluoresce) equivalent to the energy difference between the two states. Since each element has electrons with unique energy levels, the wavelength of light emitted is characteristic of the element and the intensity of light emitted is proportional to the elements concentration.
Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for studying coinage from the Indo-Pak subcontinent
History of Coinage
The objective of the proposed experiment is to analyze and study the historical coins of the sub-continent that were minted in the region from approximately 200 BC to 1947 AD. For this purpose, a collaboration with the Lahore museum would be beneficial since these museums possess a treasure of coins which were minted and used during different historical periods. The X-ray spectroscopy of the coins can provide a good opportunity to understand the technology, political and economic history of different reigns and empires of the sub-continent.

Competing Modes of Heat Transfer

Project is complete. Researchers: Wasif Zia, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
A comparison was done between radiation, convection and conduction under conditions of forced and natural convection. We interrogate heat exchange from different geometries such as cones and fins as well. We placed 16 thermocouples attached to the heating cylinder to find out the heat loss gradient as a function of length.

Explorations in nonlinear physics (electrical and electromechanical systems)

Project is complete. Researchers: Junaid Alam, Dr. Sabieh Anwar; Collaborator: Dr. Abubakr Muhammad
Chaos and nonlinear physics
The Magnetic Pendulum
We have developed new experiments in the nonlinear dynamics series, "Observing Chaos in an RL-Diode Circuit" and "The Magnetic Pendulum" that are now included in Experimental Physics Lab II. They beautifully manifest the notion of chaos and the related non-linearities. Bifurcations and chaos in circuit behavior are observed using different tools, e.g. Fourier Spectra, phase portraits and Poincare Sections as well as the dual mode plots on oscilloscope.

Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices

Project is complete. Researchers: Asma Khalid, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
SQUID's
Superconducting Quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are sensitive devices that can detect small changes in the magnetic field. They take advantage of two important properties of superconductors, namely the flux quantization and the Josephson effect. Mr. SQUID is a commercially available high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC SQUID. We have used Mr. SQUID to study the novel phenomena of superconductors and have used is as an extremely sensitive magnetometer and nano-voltmeter.

Muon lifetime measurement

Researchers: Sohaib Shamim, Rameez Ahmad, Dr. Sabieh Anwar
SSE physlab is developing an experiment on muon life time measurement for junior physics lab. We are also developing a low cost-high speed electronics module based on fast complex programmable logic devices (CPLD) which will act as stand alone signal extracting and logic component in the experiment.

General research and development

Circuit boxes: We make our own circuit boxes depending on the demand in the lab. Boxes are made out of plexiglass or aluminium sheet.
Furnaces: We have a muffle and vacuum tube furnace which are 30 step programmable.
Ferroelectric materials: We can make ferroelectric materials using Solgel autocombustion.
Power tools and machining facility: We have acquired a whole range of power tools and a top of the line manual gear head lathe, resources that help us in all modifications and manufacturing of minor to moderate levels.
Optical table: We have acquired an optical table for our optical experiments. A variety of optical breadboards are also available.
Resource for LUMS: We also act as a resource for other labs in their research experiments.

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